Lydia Biel


Defined asset-forming benefits

Asset-forming benefits are payments from the employer that are intended to help the employee build up assets. Employees and civil servants such as civil servants, judges or soldiers can receive up to USD 40 per month, it may change. Government grants are also possible. All capital-forming benefits are paid directly into a form of investment determined by the employee and are not paid out directly to the employee. The capital formation benefits are voluntary benefits by the employer, but can be part of an employment or collective agreement. In some cases, the employer can also top up the payments out of pocket. This can be useful in order to receive the maximum possible state subsidies.

First in first, you need to clarify whether you are entitled to capital formation benefits. To do this, take a look at your employment contract and, if applicable, the applicable collective agreement. There is no statutory right to capital formation benefits. They are an additional and voluntary service by the employer to build up the employee’s assets. As such, however, capital-building benefits can be part of your employment or collective bargaining agreement. Corresponding company agreements are also possible.

The situation is different with the entitlement to state subsidies for capital formation benefits (employee savings allowance). You are only entitled to this if your taxable monthly income is below a certain limit.

What is the duration of capital formation payments?

The contracts run for seven years. The first six years are paid in, then the money is dormant for a year. The money will only be available to you after the lock-up period of seven years has expired. An exception is building society savings with capital-forming benefits, where payments are made over the full seven years.

Also the saving is possible in various forms of investment. Risks, potential returns and the requirements for or the amount of government subsidies vary.

  • Pay off real estate loans with capital building services
  • The home loan and savings contract with capital-building benefits
  • The bank savings plan with capital-building benefit
  • Investing capital-forming benefits: the fund savings plan

Are capital-building services taxed?

Capital-forming benefits are part of your gross income and as such are also taxed and levied. However, this does not reduce the deposits, but your net income. The amount of taxes and duties depends on your personal income and living conditions.


It is hardest for low-income earners to build up reserves and their own wealth. That is why the state subsidizes capital-building benefits for low-wage earners in the form of employee savings allowances. The requirements for the grant and the amount depend on the type of investment you choose.

End capital-forming benefits early

You can terminate a the contract at any time. However, in doing so you may accept additional costs or reduced returns. These details are specified in your individual contract.

In addition, if you terminate a contract prematurely, you must repay all grants received through the employee savings allowance. The legislature only provides for exceptions for married couples or employees who want to become self-employed, who have become 95% incapable of working or who have been unemployed for more than a year. They are still allowed to keep the grants.


Value investing is about buying undervalued stocks and betting on their positive development over the long term. For this purpose, listed companies are rated according to comprehensive operational and financial indicators and compared to their share price. Value investing is thus the counter model to short-term stock market speculation.

What is value investing?

Value investing does not see stocks primarily as an object of speculation, but rather as what they actually are: shares in a company. Since the price of a share is determined by free trading on the stock exchange, it depends solely on supply and demand among private and institutional investors. So it is not directly linked to a company’s performance, although it is often based on it.

This difference between the market value and the actual value of a company is used in value investing. You put the two values ​​in relation to each other and you can identify companies whose shares are undervalued on the stock exchange. The investor therefore decides on the basis of his analysis that a certain company is worth more than its market value and predicts that the share value will rise in the long term for this reason.

So, when it comes to value investing, you’re only targeting undervalued stocks . One does not speculate on rapid price increases, but on solid performance. That is why value investing is an approach that is designed for at least a few years. Value investors earn not only from the difference between purchase and sales value, but also from dividends and possible share buybacks or company spin-offs.

The basic principles of value investing

Value investing basically comprises an entire investment philosophy that is difficult to reduce to a few basic principles. However, knowing the most important key ideas is helpful in understanding value investing.

Price ≠ Value: The safety margin

Without thorough fundamental analysis of the companies behind the stocks, value investing is impossible. This is the only way to tell whether a company is undervalued or overvalued on the stock exchange. The difference between the actual company value (intrinsic value, fair value) and the actual market value is referred to as the “safety margin”.

The difference between the actual value and the market value is the safety margin.

The profit lies in purchasing: Undervalued buying

The value investor assumes that his analyzes give him a knowledge advantage. In order to use this as well as possible, he invests in stocks that are as much undervalued as possible or have a high margin of safety. This increases the chances of winning and lowers the risk.

Buy & Hold: Long-term investments lead to success

Value investing assumes that in the long run the shares of successful companies will rise in price even though they are currently worth less. However, it is difficult to predict when this will happen or how quickly the price will rise. Therefore, stocks have to be held for a number of years. Ideally, they are only sold when the company’s valuation is significantly worse compared to the market value and the shares are therefore currently overvalued. Because then holding the shares for a longer period can only lead to losses.

What do value investors look out for?

Stocks that rank below their fair value are interesting for value investors. For a profitable sale it is then sufficient if more investors discover and invest in the potential of the shares in the future. On the other hand, price setbacks are less likely if the valuation was not previously inflated. In addition to stable, long-term sustainable business models, classic value values ​​also show:

  • a low price / earnings ratio (P / E),
  • an attractive price / book value ratio (P / B),
  • high and constant dividend yields.


Value investing is about identifying companies with potential and exploiting it. Value investing stands and falls with intensive analyzes of companies, their competitors and markets. In contrast to short and medium-term speculations, value investing therefore requires a larger database.

However, there are also disadvantages to value investing. First of all, independent value investing is difficult for private individuals to pursue. You have to deal very intensively with the company, acquire and internalize the basics of entrepreneurial activity. Only then are you able to create a fundamental analysis, evaluate it and then identify a promising investment – and even then there is no guarantee of a successful investment, because nobody can see into the future. In addition, there is usually a lack of prior knowledge and the corresponding capacity for analysis – after all, there are over 50,000 listed companies worldwide. Large investors, fund managers and investment banks have the necessary capacities. In addition, value investing is always a long-term approach and therefore assumes that the funds invested can remain in the investment over the longer term.

Who is value investing for?

Value investing or not? This is a fundamental question that every investor has to decide for himself. We have put together a checklist that you can use to check whether this approach is right for you.

Why bull and bear?

The bull and bear have a long tradition as stock exchange symbols. However, it is unclear what historical origins these two animals have in the stock market world. A popular legend has it that in the 17th century, exhibition fights between bears and bulls took place near London’s trading post. Consequently, he has used this analogy in his stock market reports. That too should have happened in the 17th century.

However, it is undisputed why bulls stand for rising prices and bears for falling prices. A fighting bull thrusts its horns upwards and triumphs in the end with its head held high. A bear, on the other hand, prefers to avoid fighting and looks for an escape route. But if he is forced to fight, he likes to strike from top to bottom with his strong paw.


If there is an economic upswing in a region or an industry, this usually leads to a “bull market” or “bull market”. This denotes longer lasting price increases. It is also said that the stock market is “bullish” or “bullish” in phases of economic boom.


During economic downturn or even recession there is often a “bear market” or “bear market”. Often the bear market follows a long phase of price stagnation at a high level. A typical persistent bear market arises when investors lose confidence in a security, industry, or region. The market is then “bearish” or “bearish” for a period of time.

What is a bear market rally?

A bear market rally describes the state of a strong price recovery that immediately follows a strong devaluation during a bear market. The market is not yet bullish here, instead the price levels off at a medium level during a bear market rally. As a result of the panic-like sales described, share prices fall unnaturally sharply in a bear market – this is offset again in a bear market rally.

What are bull traps in financial jargon?

Not bulls fall into the bull traps on the stock market, but investors. This is because they mistakenly interpret short-term price increases as a bull market. But instead of rising further, prices then stagnate or fall. The bull trap snaps shut and investors sit on papers that they can only sell for less than their purchase value.

What are bear traps in financial jargon?

In the bear traps on the stock market, there are no bears, but investors. Here shares are sold due to short-term falling prices. Investors sense a bear market – but if prices recover, they miss out on profits. The bear trap snaps shut and investors watch as others do good business with the stocks they have just sold.

How can investors benefit from the bull market and the bear market?

In order to profit from bullish and bearish markets, you have to recognize them early enough to then buy or sell. In any case, the longer a bull or bear market lasts, the more suspicious investors should become and look particularly carefully before making their decisions. Because no bear or bull market lasts forever!


In order to benefit from a bullish market phase, investors need to recognize this early on and buy the corresponding securities. It is very difficult for laypeople to recognize a bull market in time. However, it helps to keep a close eye on business and stock market news.

Selling at the right time is just as important as buying in time. Inexperienced investors often sell very early when stock prices have just started to rise. The best timing to sell is when prices, i.e. when the bull market is over, start stagnating or falling again.

In summary:

  • Recognize bull market in good time
  • Buy stocks early in the bull market
  • Sell ​​stocks at the end of the bull market
  • Benefit from the bear market

A bearish market phase is more of a phase of crisis on the stock market. That is why it is first of all important to recognize the bear market in good time and to sell the corresponding securities in good time. In this way you avoid having to sell papers at a loss. If you have sold your paper on time and survived the bear market, then is often a good time to invest in promising securities. Bear markets therefore always offer opportunities. But be careful: not every bear market is followed by a bull market or a bear market rally. Often, prices simply stagnate for a long time at a certain level or fall again.


  • Recognize bear market in good time
  • Sell ​​stocks early in the bear market
  • Check buying opportunities at the end of the bear market

During a bear market, however, advanced investors can not only avoid losses, but also proactively generate profits. Namely via so-called “put options” or “short sales” or “short positions”. However, these are relatively complex and risky instruments that should only be used by experienced investors.

What are bullish-bearish clauses?

A bullish-bearish clause is usually not used on the stock exchange, but on commodity markets. In long-term transactions, the problem for sellers and buyers is always that market prices can change significantly over time. If prices rise, the seller tends to have an advantage, but if prices fall, the buyer benefits. A bull clause becomes relevant when prices rise. If the prices rise so much that the buyer no longer accepts them, the seller can withdraw from the purchase contract. He can then sell to another buyer.

A bearish clause, on the other hand, becomes relevant when prices fall. If the prices drop so much that the seller cannot accept the prices, the buyer can withdraw from the purchase contract. He can then buy from another seller. A bullish-bearish clause is the combination of both clauses and is particularly popular because it spreads the risk equally for buyers and sellers. This reduces the risk of long-term sales contracts for both parties and makes it easier to conclude long-term contracts.


What is a savings plan?

The Savings Plan: A Way To Build Wealth. A savings plan is a contractual agreement between an investor, someone who wants to save their money, and an investment provider. It is used for the regular payment of sums of money into an investment. Investors often pay in their money there on a monthly basis, some also at weekly intervals. There are savings plans that only provide for a fixed, recurring payment. But there are also banks, investment companies and building societies that offer savings plans that allow special payments in addition to these regular payments.

Is a savings plan right for me?

Do you want to invest your well-earned money sensibly and build up assets in the medium to long term? Then a savings plan can be the solution. Savings plans are not only suitable for wealthy investors, but also for small savers. Your savings plan can also be useful for everyone who is return-oriented with regard to their investment and retirement provision and still wants to remain flexible. Most savings plans allow a dynamic range of installments – ie you can flexibly adjust your installments or even suspend them entirely.

What are the advantages of a savings plan?

Basically, savings plans naturally have the advantage that they can slowly but steadily help the investor to build up wealth. Another benefit, especially for investors who have more taxable income, is government funding. You can receive bonuses from the state for savings plans such as building society savings plans.

Also practical: there are variants for both medium-term and long-term wealth accumulation. While savings plans with government subsidies with terms of 7 years are a medium-term option, you may build up your assets over the long term with securities savings plans or savings plans for children. You do not have to observe time restrictions here, so you can access your savings balance at any time, although it may be lower in the meantime than at other times.

Savings plans offer you a high degree of flexibility. You can also choose between many different savings plan options. This is how, regardless of whether you are a conservative or a risk-taker, you can define the retirement package that matches you and your needs.

Nevertheless, the different savings plan variants also have their own individual characteristics, which you as an investor should take into account in advance. In addition to the opportunity to build up assets in the medium to long term, there is also a risk of loss for the investor.

The right choice of savings plan: it depends on it

When deciding on a savings plan variant, the amount of the monthly installment that you want to invest and the duration of your savings plan are particularly important. If you are considering a securities savings plan, you will need a securities account. All banks offer this, but it is worthwhile to compare the conditions.

If you compare the providers with regard to their savings plan products, you will find that there are often very many savings plan options to choose from. Ultimately, you need to know that a securities savings plan does not offer you secure returns. Even if the balance sheet has been positive in the past, that is no guarantee of an equally glorious future.

Of course, market fluctuations are somewhat normal. Nevertheless: In order to prevent major losses, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with other system variants. It can make sense to spread your capital across different investments. A mixture of conservative, i.e. safe savings plans and savings investments with a little more risk, but also higher return opportunities, can offset the financial risk overall. Invest only money as you can actually spare per month. Because nobody can predict the stock market and share development with certainty.


The different types of savings plan also have different advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, as an investor, you should compare and weigh the options in order to find the savings investment that suits you best.

  • The money saving plan
  • The capital formation benefits
  • The securities savings plan
  • The fund savings plan
  • The savings plan for children

Historically low interest rates, little price movement on the stock exchanges: The situation on the investment market makes it difficult for private investors to make the right investment decisions and successfully build up assets. In view of the market environment, the right investment strategy is of crucial importance. With the right concept, private investors are successful even in the current difficult times. But which investment strategy is the best? Read here how to invest your money profitably.

No chance for chance: secure returns with the right investment strategy

Without a suitable investment strategy, success in investing is merely a matter of luck and rarely lasts. Successful investing and above-average returns are no coincidence, but the result of structured investment decisions that are based on a coherent investment strategy. The concept provides the guard rails within which the investment decisions move. Before deciding for or against an investment, the fundamental question must always be which concept the portfolio should be put together. Those who follow a strategy when investing money make their portfolio more secure from losses and at the same time improve their chances of achieving a stable total return across all investments.


The selection of the investment concept depends on various criteria such as return expectations, risk tolerance, investment horizon and, last but not least, the current market situation. Each investor decides for himself which specific investment strategy is the right one. In principle, private investors can choose between the following eight concepts, on the basis of which they decide which investments to include in their portfolio:  Before deciding on an investment strategy or a mixture of several concepts, the private investor should clearly define what goal he is pursuing with the investment: Is it about building up assets or fulfilling a specific consumer desire, such as buying a property or a car? There is also the time aspect: In what time should the defined investment goal be achieved? The fundamental orientation of the strategy with regard to the duration and return of the investment is derived from the answers.

Turbo returns or long-term asset accumulation?

If a high return is to be achieved in a short period of time, private investors tend to have to take a higher investment risk. This means there is a chance of above-average profits, but also the risk of having to cut back on the return or, in the worst case, of suffering losses. On the other hand, private investors interested in long-term asset accumulation should spread their investments as broadly as possible over safe investments with relatively low potential returns. For a good total return, however, it is important to add investments to the portfolio that offer the opportunity for above-average returns. However, this always goes hand in hand with a higher investment risk. Without adding speculative investments to the portfolio, however, only a weak return can be achieved, particularly in view of the ongoing weak interest rates. In this respect, high-opportunity and high-risk investments are essential for every investor. The exact equilibrium of the relationship between opportunity and risk in the portfolio depends on the individual’s appetite for return, the ability to take risks, and the investment horizon. In both cases – with the fast return variant as well as with long-term asset accumulation – a number of investment strategies are ruled out. This quickly becomes clear when you take a closer look at the eight concepts mentioned.


As the name suggests: With the growth strategy, the investment focus is clearly on the return. It has absolute priority when making investment decisions. Investors who focus their portfolio on growth, for example, invest in companies that have above-average growth potential. Often these are companies with innovative ideas that are predicted to be a great success.

Growth companies can often be found in the computer and software industries, as well as in the biotech sector. Often they are not yet making high profits. In the case of listed companies, investors can recognize this by their high price-earnings ratio (P / E). A high P / E ratio means that the share price, i.e. the market valuation on the stock exchange, is relatively high compared to the profit generated. The prices of growth companies are based only on future expectations and not on current business figures. This means that investors can benefit from high price gains if they are successful. However, if they make a profit, most of these companies will pay little or no dividends to shareholders. As a rule, they need all the financial means to cover the costs for research and development and thus ensure the company’s further growth.

Just as there is no guarantee that growth companies will receive dividends. Their market value is usually subject to strong fluctuations: Within a short period of time, very high price gains, but also significant drops, up to the total loss of the investment, are possible. Basically, the growth strategy is suitable for short- or medium-term  oriented investors with above-average return expectations who are willing to take a higher investment risk for the prospect of higher investment returns.

Crowdinvesting as a potential source of returns

Crowdinvesting is an interesting alternative to investing in up-and-coming, listed companies. Startups, for example, finance themselves through crowd investing. But established companies also use the new form of financing to get innovative projects off the ground. Investors have the opportunity to participate in such potentially high-yield investments via crowd investing. The still young investment model is therefore a possible building block for private investors who pursue a growth-oriented investment strategy. Crowdinvesting is suitable as a speculative addition to a broad-based investment portfolio that is protected against possible losses and offers the chance of an above-average return.


In contrast to the growth strategy, investors with the value strategy invest specifically in a value-oriented manner. The money flows into established companies with long-term stable profit development. The growth concept is very security-oriented and is considered a particularly conservative investment strategy. The value approach gives investors the chance of relatively steady price development and solid dividend payments. However, there is no guarantee of this, as the economic crises and the crises of individual companies show. Nevertheless, the investment strategy with a focus on “value” is suitable for long-term investors.

Long-term investments in companies with high value have not brought investors above-average, but relatively stable price gains and dividends in the past. The investment strategy is particularly interesting for investors who pursue the goal of building up assets over a long period of time while keeping the investment risk as low as possible.

Dividend yield: How shareholders benefit from corporate profits

The  dividend yield  gives private investors information about how interest is paid on a share. When calculating the dividend yield, the last dividend paid is compared with the current market value. In this way, shareholders can estimate what profit they can generate with their investment regardless of the price development of the share.


The countercyclical investment strategy is particularly suitable for experienced investors who have a deep understanding of the market in which they want to be financially involved. The principle of countercyclical investing is simple: buy company shares when prices are low and sell them at a profit when prices rise. The practical implementation of the investment concept is, however, considerably more difficult.

Before investing, investors must first identify companies that are undervalued on the stock market but have potential for the future. But even with good timing and patience, it is by no means certain that the value of a company with potential will actually increase and that investors will be rewarded for their speculative investment in the form of price gains. The countercyclical investment strategy is therefore primarily suitable for risk-conscious private investors with market knowledge and a short to medium-term investment horizon.

Countercyclical investments have a chance of success not only in the event of severe shocks in the global economy. Investors can also take advantage of crises in individual sectors. Because crises offer investment opportunities. This currently also applies to the maritime industry. The shipping industry has gone through a deep crisis and is on the way to consolidation – an interesting investment target for investors pursuing a countercyclical investment strategy.

Invest countercyclically in the maritime industry

There are currently interesting investment opportunities in the ship market for countercyclical investors. The shipping crisis has led to a sharp market correction within the industry: a large number of older ships have left the market, which has resulted in a massive reduction in excess tonnage capacity. This trend is currently being continued by increasingly stringent, globally applicable environmental regulations. New editions are likely to lead to a further shake-out of the market, which will considerably improve the economic prospects for the remaining market participants. Investors can take advantage of this phase of the market shakeout by investing in the maritime industry, for example in the promising  segment of multi-purpose freighters .

The shrinking supply of sea transport is offset by a growing demand: According to forecasts, sea transports, which already account for around 90 percent of world trade, will continue to gain in importance. As a result, investors who invest in this key industry now have the opportunity to benefit from increasing charter rates and an increase in the value of modern ships.


The opposite of countercyclical investing is procyclical. Investors who build their portfolio according to this investment strategy invest their money in companies whose market value has already risen significantly. The idea here: companies that have been successful in the recent past will continue to be so in the near future. Investors hope to benefit from further rising prices.

But timing is crucial with this investment concept. Less experienced investors in particular run the risk of getting in too late and only when the enterprise is at the height of its growth.Instead of making price gains, investors in such a case are at risk of losing money, at least in the medium term.


What interests are to savers, dividends are to shareholders. Because of the persistently low interest rates, many investors have now started withdrawing money from traditional investments such as overnight money and instead investing in shares of companies that regularly pay dividends. In this way, investors benefit not only from possible price increases, in the type of dividends, but also through their role in business earnings.

In view of the Corona crisis, however, companies around the world are increasingly cautious when it comes to dividend payments. Instead, they currently focus on securing their liquidity. Therefore, betting on dividends is not a good investment strategy in 2020. Due to the significant decline in profits of listed companies, stock market experts do not expect a turnaround in terms of dividend payments in 2021 either. As a sole investment strategy, focusing on dividends does not currently make sense. However, long-term investments in companies that pay their shareholders regular dividends tend to help stabilize the investment portfolio. Because the companies are usually solidly positioned, the investment is correspondingly secure. However, investors can usually only generate a relatively low return with this investment strategy.


With the index strategy, investors invest in index certificates or ETFs that can be freely traded on the stock exchange (exchange-traded funds). This brings significant cost advantages compared to managed equity funds. In addition, the money invested is widely spread across a large number of individual companies from different industries. This gives investors more security than investments in individual stocks. Like all investments on the stock exchange, buying index-linked products only makes sense for long-term investors. ETFs are considered a relatively safe investment. However, a long-term bear market can jeopardize returns and the money invested. A total loss is also possible in principle.


With this investment strategy, private investors invest in large companies with a particularly high market value, so-called “blue chips”. They are the “heavyweights” in their respective stock index.

The idea behind the size concept: In the long term, these large companies only have to fear minor price fluctuations. High losses are possible, but unlikely. Conversely, however, investors cannot expect high price gains either. However, stocks in large companies usually bring security and stability to the portfolio of long-term investors.


Buy stocks, take sleeping pills, and stop looking at papers. After many years you will see: you are rich. ” This is how stock exchange expert André Kostolany (1906-1999) summarized his investment strategy. This method made the native Hungary a multiple millionaire over the decades, despite severe stock market crashes.

Kostolany’s investments were guided by the buy-and-hold strategy. It is designed for the long term and aims to buy stocks, funds or ETFs and keep them in the portfolio for a long time. The idea: Investors who sit out price drops in a disciplined manner, that is, “take sleeping pills”, can benefit from substantial price gains in the long term.

what are stocks?

Stocks For Beginners. Shares are shares in stock corporations that can be purchased with money. The shareholder, or investor, thus becomes a co-owner of the company or the company’s assets. The income that investors get from stocks is called “return”.

Who is offering stocks?

Companies go public in order to offer shares and thus shares in their company. One of the goals of an IPO is to inject new capital into the company by issuing shares. The additional income can strengthen equity and finance growth. The stock exchange is the trading place where securities are traded at certain prices. The value of a share is constantly re-determined in the course of a trading day by the interaction of supply and demand.

How and where can I buy shares?

You can purchase your shares independently via a custodian bank, for example comdirect, or have your custody account managed. You need a deposit to own shares. This securities account serves as a kind of warehouse for your securities. By the way: Buying and selling shares is also called “ordering”.

What are the costs of trading stocks?

Always up-to-date: Buy stocks – how is the market currently doing? How do investors behave?

The fees for buying or selling shares are usually made up of an order fee or a commission from the bank as well as exchange fees. The costs of buying shares can vary depending on the bank.

TIP FOR BEGINNERS: When buying international stocks, be aware that stocks denominated in a foreign currency may lose value due to changes in exchange rates.

As a shareholder, you have the right to attend the annual general meeting in addition to other rights. Participation in this event includes the right to vote in decisions at the general meeting as well as the right to information on legal and business transactions. You also have the right to a dividend payment, which, however, can be suspended by the stock corporation if the course of business is not successful.


Many newcomers are entering completely new territory by buying shares. To give you some guidance, we’ve summarized 14 tips on stocks for beginners:

Stock tip # 1: self-assessment

As a beginner in stock trading, you ought to first consider how much you are willing to invest and what maximum risk you would like to take.

Stock tip # 2: short term vs. long term

Check whether you can do without your investment in the long term – i.e. a few years – or whether you want to achieve short-term profits. Based on this, choose your strategy for buying stocks.

Share tip # 3: Flexible investments

Check whether you are looking for a more flexible investment, where you can buy and sell and, if necessary, payouts are possible.

Stock tip # 4: Always up to date

Before you order shares, you should inform yourself in detail about the company in question and the current prices on the stock exchange. Even if you are a beginner: start your own stock research. Do some research on the public companies that interest you.

Stock tip # 5: consider funds

Think about whether you want to invest everything in one area and consider alternatives such as funds. With funds, you invest in several values ​​such as stocks, commodities or bonds. These are managed by a fund manager and adapted to the market situation. Funds offer you the opportunity to minimize your investment risk due to the diversification of your capital. A loss in value cannot be completely ruled out.

Stock tip # 6: Knowing about stocks and indices

On the stock exchange, stocks are combined into so-called indices, which provide a better overview of the overall market. An index shows the development within a certain market area.

Companies whose shares are listed in one of these four indices have to meet special requirements known as the “Prime Standard”. However, this award should not be understood as an unreserved buy recommendation for a share. The price development as well as the general situation on the stock market should always be taken into account when analyzing stocks – and not to forget the numbers.

Stock tip # 7: It’s the numbers that count

In order to make possible buy recommendations and share recommendations, financial experts differentiate between 2 different approaches when evaluating shares:

With fundamental analysis, you as the investor determine information about the company, for example about its management or industry environment as well as key figures such as B. the price-earnings ratio of a share (P / E). In addition, a comparison with past key figures and the key figures of competitors provides information about the potential of the share.

In contrast, the second stock analysis, the so-called technical analysis, is based on the assumption that the previous course of the stock price offers the best inferences about the future price development. For this purpose, the price charts are examined for resistance and support lines, for example.

Stock tip # 8: Intelligent helpers make stock trading child’s play

When it comes to finding suitable stocks, comdirect especially supports beginners with easy-to-use analysis tools. They also provide valid judgments and predictions for beginners. With the help of a portfolio analysis, you can find out where the strengths and weaknesses of your investment strategy lie. As a stock owner, with the right tools and stock tips, and taking the risks into account, you increase your chances of good returns.

Share tip # 9: Portfolio management is the be-all and end-all

Probably the most important rule when investing money is: Spread your investments and thus the risk. You should keep an eye on your entire financial situation. Many beginners make the mistake of investing all their money on a single security when buying stocks. However, this equity strategy is very risky. One of the best tips about stocks for beginners is therefore to build a portfolio over time that contains as many different stocks as possible. However, you should also make sure not to collect too many securities in your securities account so that you do not lose track.

Stock tip # 10: let profits run, limit losses

Some savers tend to just ditch their stocks after buying them. However, there is a smart alternative to this investment strategy: you have the option to reduce the risk of loss. For example with a stop-loss order. The stop-loss order is converted into an unlimited order, which is only executed at the next possible price. However, this can also be lower than the limit set – so there is still a certain risk of loss.

Stock tip # 11: reinvest profits

Reinvest profits, i.e. the money that ends up in your account through the distribution of dividends, in new securities. In this way, your wealth can grow in a similar way as it used to be the case with compound interest on a savings account – but with securities you also have to be aware of the risk of loss.

Stock Tip # 12: Establish a Stock Savings Plan

With a savings plan, you can invest a fixed amount in selected top investment products monthly, bi-monthly or quarterly. Practical: With a share savings plan, you retain full financial flexibility. Because the amount and interval of the savings rate can be changed or completely set at any time without additional costs. So you can buy stocks as time and financially as possible.

Stock tip # 13: Trust numbers, analyzes and yourself when investing your money

…not on rumors, dubious promises, trends or “insider tips”. It is better to use comdirect’s tools and expert assessments. Also, relying on your own knowledge can be useful when selecting and trading stocks – even if you are a novice stock trader.

For example, someone who is involved in automobiles will find it easier to assess companies in the automotive industry.

Tip # 14: Get expert help when needed

Beginners in particular are often unsure or have further questions about custody accounts or share trading. Feel free to contact our community with your questions.


Securities can pay off twice for investors. On the one hand, dividends, i.e. income, can be distributed. On the other hand, you can participate in the positive economic development of a company through price increases.

BUT BE CAREFUL: shares are risk paper, which means that the price of your securities on the stock exchange can also be negative. So there may be a decline in the value of your stocks or the dividend may be suspended. Here are some possible reasons:

Stock buying for beginners – Risks in buying stocks

The bankruptcy risk refers to the entrepreneurial risk that is based on the fact that a stock corporation can develop differently: positive and negative. As an investor and therefore a co-owner, you share both opportunities and risks. The risk of price changes exists because share prices can be subject to unexpected fluctuations. The values ​​rise and fall in periods that cannot be planned in the short, medium or long term. While business success naturally contributes to course development in the long term, other influences such as the overall economy, politics or events such as strikes and international disputes can occur. The dividend risk includes the risk that a dividend will be lower or even complete, as a company can develop unexpectedly negative.

The psychology of market participants also plays an important role when it comes to the risk of buying stocks. Investors assess stocks individually, which can happen according to rational and irrational criteria. This investor behavior accordingly influences the stock market and prices. At the risk of the rate forecast is a risk that analysis and the assessment of performance hides prove to be incorrect. For shareholders, therefore, the question of the right timing regularly arises, i.e. when is the best entry and when is the optimal exit from a stock investment.

Your shares are subject to the risk of losing or changing your rights. Reasons for this can be, for example, a change in legal form, mergers or divisions.

TIP: Before buying a share, take a look not only at the company figures, but also at the environment, history and potential risk factors.

Anyone who wants to make a profit on the stock market must also take into account possible losses. Price fluctuations “in the wrong direction” occur more frequently than some stock market participants would like. Risk and money management should help prevent losses from being sidelined.

Money and risk management: Why we also need it for our psyche in stock market trading

Losses are particularly painful on the stock market and often a problem, especially for those new to the stock market. Because they encourage misconduct, which in many cases leads to even greater losses. Our psyche stands in the way of properly dealing with losses. We want to avoid success and therefore losses at all costs. That is why we find it difficult to admit that we are betting “on the wrong horse”. Two typical behavior patterns are:

  • A position is held in spite of losses in the hope that there will be a countermovement that offsets the minus
  • It is eagerly bought in order to make a profit elsewhere, which is supposed to compensate for losses

Neither of these are always wrong, but they can still turn out to be disastrous if a trader acts rashly, chooses a position size that is too high and does not pull a rip cord to part with a definitely unsuccessful exposure. That is exactly the reason for risk and money management.

Risk management and diversification

Risk management is initially a very general and overarching term. With regard to financial investments – for example shares – it describes the systematic risk limitation and risk control in the awareness that there are various risks associated with investments. When it comes to stock market investments , diversification or risk spreading is a common risk management strategy for investors. By spreading it across numerous stocks and asset classes, part of the risk may be’ diversified down’. This type of risk management is always recommended and applies both in the long-term and in the short-term perspective and regardless of whether you invest or speculate as an investor. It is a basic principle. Risk and money management in this article, however, relates more to short-term and speculative trading on stock exchanges – trading. That is not to say that it cannot be applied “in the longer term”. It is well known that the boundaries between speculating and investing are fluid.

Why are money management and risk management so important?

Risk and money management are two approaches to keep the risk of loss in stock exchange trading within limits. The basic idea is to outsmart our psyche with clearly defined, sensible “rules of the game” and thereby avoid “excessive” losses. It is about a strategy of only taking (well) calculated risks as a trader and drawing the tear line in good time, instead of being guided by “fear of loss”.

There is not always a clear distinction made between risk management and money management in trading. This involves different starting points, which, however, are not mutually exclusive, but rather belong together. The difference is:

  • Risk management refers to limiting losses on a single trade
  • Money management aims at the correct position size or number of positions in trades in order to maintain an appropriate relationship between the risk of loss and the chance of profit

This already makes it clear: the combination of both approaches makes sense.

What is Risk Management?

Risk management decides at which prices to sell in order to realize losses or to avoid losses.

Limit losses through stop prices

Losses can occur in a position in two ways. The more comfortable situation is: A profit is not realized in the “hope for even more” and is lost again due to opposing exchange rates. More unpleasant: “real” losses develop due to a different course of the course than expected. In order to limit the losses in both cases, it is advisable to set exit prices at which gains or losses are actually realized. In terms of profit, such an exit price is also known as a profit or price target (take profit), and in terms of loss as a loss limit (stop loss). That is the whole point of risk management in trading.

How do I go about risk management?

The art for traders is to determine the “right” exit rates. There is no general limit and good exit rates are not static either. If there are fundamental changes in the chart technical or fundamental data, an adjustment can be recommended. And a take or stop always depends on what chances of winning still exist and how much loss you can handle.

What is money management?

While risk management takes effect when leaving a position, money management is about the right entry. The trader determines the order of magnitude of trades or security purchases with a view to limiting losses.

Limit losses through the correct use of capital The basic idea is to divide the freely available capital in such a way that, even in the event of losses, enough capital remains for subsequent trades to have a realistic chance of equalizing them again. Colloquially, you could also formulate: it’s about not firing your powder all at once, but also having a second, third or fourth shot free to hit the mark.

Ravencoin Intro
Ravencoin, a fork of Bitcoin, is a relatively young token; it has only been floating among cryptocurrencies since January 3, 2018. But in the first months of 2020, the coin has attracted attention for its rapid price rise. The name is the fictional one borrowed from the fictional world of Game of Thrones.

The official media post for Ravencoin describes it as “a peer-to-peer digital network to facilitate asset transfers.”

It is essentially an open-source fork of the Bitcoin code with faster block reward times and aims for censorship resistance, transparency and privacy.

Ravencoin was created from the Bitcoin codebase but uses the X16R mining algorithm. The ASIC-resistant coin uses 16 different mining algorithms, which automatically further increases the security of the network.

The Ravencoin blockchain was developed specifically for certain purposes. On the one hand, it aims to help determine asset ownership flawlessly. On the other hand, Ravencoin aims to enable direct payments, similar to Bitcoin. As the open-source project emphasizes on its homepage, it is completely decentralized: Neither master nodes nor especially ICO are behind the project.

Ravencoin (RVN) has all the characteristics of a good crypto project: No ICO, no founders owning the majority of the coins, it is a PoW project where anyone can mine it with their CPU thanks to the ASIC-resistant design of the mining algorithm, it is backed by some notable names in the crypto space like Bruce Fenton and Tron Black, it pays homage to Bitcoin and very much respects the work of the core developers it was forked by, which in turn gets them help from some of those Bitcoin developers, etc. .

RVN Forecast 2021
ICX, like the rest of the market, is tied at the hip to Bitcoin’s price action. If Bitcoin starts another bull run, ICX can hope for one as well. It is when the altcoins take over and enter the race with the bulls. Bitcoin often doubles or triples in price within a few days.

With the outbreak of the pandemic, the world was put into hibernation for a few months, and It negatively affected cryptocurrencies and sent Bitcoin downhill, as we saw as much as 40% daily losses. However, the situation quickly stabilized, and Bitcoin, as the standard-bearer brought the crypto market back to life. We have been in a major bull run since the summer, and if we listen to the analyses of social media and journalists’ desks, we are far from its local peak.

What does this mean for the RVN price in 2021?

As long as bitcoin takes the lead and moves up, there is little room for ICX to shine. However, it will increase its USD-denominated value thanks to the general rise in crypto prices. Nonetheless, the ratio of ICX to BTC is likely to decline, possibly to an all-time low. This means that it is best to keep your funds in Bitcoin until it reaches its temporary peak, opening the doors for altcoins. RVN will be among the top candidates to post big gains, as money usually flows from Bitcoin gains to blue chip altcoins and big cap coins before trickling down to the lesser known and smaller projects.

Vitalik Buterin, co-founder of Ethereum, said:

“There are some good ideas, there are many very bad ideas, and there are many very, very bad ideas, and there are also many scams.”

However, not all projects have the same chance of failure (risk), nor do they have the same upside potential (reward).

As a result of the incompetence and lack of integrity of ICO teams, fueled by a basic human instinct, namely greed and the naivety of crypto investors, over 95% of successful ICOs and cryptocurrency projects will fail and lose their investors money. The remaining 5% of projects will become the new Apple, Google or Alibaba in the crypto industry. Will RVN be one of those 5%?

Good chance that will happen.

Raven’s potential is based on use case as a platform for assets in a market that has shifted to a token model that is expected to take a $10-40 trillion marketplace. If Raven succeeds in capturing a fraction of a percent of that market, it will be dollars, not cents, per RVN coin.
This is the killer app of the blockchain, this will take time to develop, but if Raven comes anywhere near its potential, this phase will hardly be on the all time charts.

Why will Ravencoin fail?
No matter how strong the project is, there will always be doubts and those who ask are Ravencoin dead and why will it fail. Below are some of the price depressing factors you should consider before buying RVN.

RVN inflation is massive, with 7.2 million new coins entering circulation every day, diluting the value of the existing supply. The current available supply is 2.2 billion, so many coins need to enter circulation before we reach a total supply of 21 billion.

Supply/demand is a simple economic factor that affects the price of many things. If a cryptocurrency has a high token supply with low demand from traders and users, then the value of the cryptocurrency decreases. Conversely, if the supply of a particular cryptocurrency is limited and the demand is high, then the value of the coin increases. The supply of RVN coins is not huge right now, but as mentioned earlier, it continues to grow at a great rate. This is a negative downward pressure on the RVN price.

This dynamic is linked to another basic economic principle, scarcity. Scarcity refers to the gap between limited – i.e., scarce – resources and theoretically unlimited needs. At 21 billion tokens, RVN is anything but scarce, at least for its current level of adoption.

Why will Ravencoin succeed?
So why will Ravencoin rise and increase in price? There are many potential price catalysts, some of which are presented below.
Upward price pressure is exerted with adoption, as each new asset creation event burns 500 RVN, mitigating inflation and lowering coin supply. The more users on the RVN platform, the better for the price.

Ravencoin has a big company behind it – Overstock is one of the project’s biggest investors. Also Medici Ventures is a large fund that is a public and open backer of Ravencoin, which has already used RVN to complete a $3.6 million security transfer over the RVN blockchain.

Another positive pricing factor will also be action-related. If a company decides to put its shares on the Raven blockchain and pay dividends to token holders, it will have to pay them RVN. This means that once a quarter/year (however it is decided) they must acquire enough RVN to pay out in dividends.

All of this suggests that Ravencoin has a solid team behind the project that has a really steep hill to climb. Participating in RVN in 2020 and beyond is a high risk, but even higher reward situation. So if your appetite for risk and their investment profile mixes well with this type of asset, Raven and your portfolio will fit like a glove.

Market Forecast for Ravencoin – RVN Price 2021.
Since the market is completely unpredictable, predicting the cryptocurrency price is more of a gamble and a game of chance than a data-driven estimate.

Let’s take a look at the prominent publications and personalities and their predictions about the Ravencoin price that will give us a different perspective:

CryptoGround is a cryptocurrency prediction algorithm that is moderately to excessively bullish on most coins, but not on RVN tokens. They predict that EOY’s RVN will rise up to $0.07 per token, which is a slight increase of 1.4 times compared to the current price.

Wallet Investor
Walletinvestor is a popular website that makes technical analysis-based price predictions of various cryptocurrencies and traditionally has a skeptical outlook for most coins, but not for RVN. Accordingly, Ravencoin is expected to fluctuate around the current $0.05 by the end of the year.

Trading Beasts
Trading Beasts is usually on a diametrically opposite side of the wallet investor and sees a much more bullish future for most tokens. Their algo is not too enamored with Raven and predicts that RVN may drop a bit to around $0.04 within a year, meaning it will essentially lose 20% of its value over the next year.

Another crypto prediction algorithm that is most conservative in its approach of the 4 we have listed here – DCP usually predicts that the price will fluctuate around the same level as the current state, and predicts a two-fold increase or decrease for certain coins. RVN is on the bullish side of their algo, taking it to $0.12 per coin by December 2021.

Ravencoin coin future: 2021, 2023, 2025
Ravencoin Forecast 2021
Ravencoin was one of the most unknown crypto projects that started a surprising bull run, surprisingly taking the majority of the market. However, after the last run, most crypto investors keep RVN on their radars and since the project has solid fundamentals, no controversies or previous incidents, an excellent use case and a solid team behind it, it is very plausible to expect RVN to reach at least 10 times its current price, i.e. $0.50 per coin.

Ravencoin Price Forecast 2023
If Ravencoin survives to see 2023, which is more likely than not, the token would certainly be at 10-100x its current value, meaning it would be at $0.50 – $5 per token.

Ravencoin Price Forecast 2025.
Again, should RVN survive to see 2025, the token would certainly be at 100x+ of the current value, which implies it would be at $5+ per token.

Realistic RAVENCOIN Price Forecast.
Predicting prices for novel, highly volatile and risky asset classes is a thankless task – the best answer is that no one knows. The educated guess is that the realistic Ravencoin price for the foreseeable future is somewhere around the current price.

We don’t yet know which cryptocurrencies will make it out of the crypto winter we’re currently in. There are many coins that have a good chance of weathering the crypto storm and perhaps gaining prominence as the market gobbles up and contracts some of the weaker projects. However, there are more of these projects that are already dead but no one has noticed yet.

But looking at things from this time and place, it is reasonable to say that Ravencoin had its five minutes of fame based on solid fundamentals and a broader market that discovered the project. It is now time for RVN to step up and continue to deliver valuable and tangible success to justify the very high expectations of investors.

Gambling, trading, hedging – this is far too hectic for some investors. They often prefer to compile their portfolio according to their personal risk appetite and do not change it after purchasing the investments. However, this so-called buy-and-hold strategy does not bring optimal results in terms of performance. Because over time, the weighting of individual asset classes can deviate significantly from the original portfolio structure, thereby increasing the investment risk.

What is rebalancing?

With rebalancing, investors reset their portfolio by reallocating the investments to the weighting specified at the beginning, i.e. to the original breakdown of the overall portfolio. In a broadly diversified portfolio, this can mean restoring the original weighting of various asset classes such as stocks, bonds, real estate or commodities. For example, rebalancing a pure equity portfolio is also conceivable. Deviations from the target weighting can arise over time, as the weighting of individual asset classes can change due to irregular performance as a result of price fluctuations.

GOOD TO KNOW: Rebalancing is not only suitable for buy-and-hold strategies, but also for other strategies such as value investing or stock picking.

Short Digression: Asset Allocation And Rebalancing

Asset allocation makes sense for rebalancing in two ways: on the one hand, it makes it easier for an investor to determine whether his portfolio has deviated from a specified target structure over time and to what extent there is a need for rebalancing. In the other hand, the investor distributes his investments through multiple asset groups as part of the asset distribution with the goal of obtaining the best possible returns with the lowest possible risk.

BACKGROUND: Individual asset classes have different risk-return profiles. Investments with high potential returns such as stocks , equity funds or ETFs are subject to higher price fluctuations (volatility) and the risk of intermittent price losses. Bonds as well as fixed, daily and short-term fixed-income securities (money market investments) offer moderate to low returns and are only subject to medium to low price fluctuations. As a rule, they correlate negatively with the equity investments and also with their volatility.

Why is rebalancing useful?

Individual asset classes are therefore subject to high volatility and, over time, can assume a significantly higher weight in the portfolio than perhaps originally planned. Investors unintentionally take risks if they simply leave their securities in their custody account after buying them. Regular rebalancing can even lead to additional long-term returns compared to other strategies such as the buy-and-hold strategy and reduce the investment risk. In summary, it can be said that investors can use rebalancing to:

  • Reduce the risk of your investments,
  • Achieve an additional return (rebalancing bonus) through countercyclical purchases and
  • Avoid unexpected exaggerations

How does rebalancing work?

With rebalancing, investors shift their capital between the individual asset classes of their portfolio so that its composition corresponds to the initial state. The rebalancing can be done according to three different approaches: according to weighting, with fresh money or with changed savings plans.

Rebalancing according to weighting

In the case of a portfolio rebalancing based on weighting, it is first necessary to check the extent to which the individual investments in the custody account deviate from the original asset allocation. Shares are then sold in positions that have outperformed their initial weighting. At the same time, you increase positions that are showing a comparatively poorer performance.

Rebalancing with fresh money

If the weighting of equity investments has gotten out of hand, investors can also reduce their quota, for example by buying low-risk investments with fresh money. Distributions from non-reinvesting equity ETFs are suitable as additional cash. These amounts can then be used to buy additional shares in bond ETFs or money market investments.

Rebalancing by changing the savings plan

If an investor has a savings plan for equity and bond ETFs in which the weight of the equity ETFs has increased, the amount saved can either be reduced or the savings plan can be suspended for a while. The savings released in this way could be diverted to low-fluctuation ETFs.


How often is rebalancing necessary?

Rebalancing only makes sense if it is done regularly. It is best to check the individual positions against the initial portfolio allocation once a year at a specific point in time. For larger assets, a quarterly or half-yearly adjustment can even make sense. Large mutual funds balance their fund assets permanently or at least monthly, as their performance is measured against an index.


  • There are significant deviations in the asset allocation from the original state. For example, if positions exceed their original weighting by 20%.
  • The composition of the stock market indices has changed and investors have replicated an index with their shares.
  • When life circumstances change. For example, when retirement is approaching and lower-risk investments should be weighted higher.

GOOD TO KNOW: When investing with cominvest, the portfolio is automatically rebalanced every day without investors having to intervene or pay for the additional transactions.

What should you watch out for when rebalancing? Investors should be aware that switching rebalancing usually involves costs. This could be transaction costs or taxes on realized profits, for example. In the case of fund rebalancing, there are also issue surcharges. It should also be noted that, for example, with funds of funds, transaction costs can be doubled – when the fund of funds is invested in its target funds and when the fund of funds is bought or sold by the investor.

What is a share buyback?

When there is talk of share buybacks on the stock exchanges, few investors know what it is really about. As the name suggests, the definition of share buybacks is simple: shares that have already been issued are simply bought back by the issuer (the share issuer). This is often a complex stock exchange strategy that companies pursue for various reasons. A share buyback can send certain signals to the public and trigger positive effects on the stock market.

The condition for such a process is that a corporation is approved by the general assembly to do so and has a correspondingly high liquidity ratio. The share buyback is then carried out either with the help of equity, or a stock corporation takes out a loan to buy back its own shares, which can result in the so-called leverage effect. The use of outside capital increases the return on equity.

How does a share buyback work?

The protocol for a share buyback scheme must be accepted by the general meeting as a resolution in order to be able to carry out a proposed share buyback. There it is also specified which share of the share capital the company may buy. The resolution of the general meeting is valid for up to 5 years and enables companies to complete the buyback program within this specified time. There is a simple reason for the restrictions: In the past, financially troubled companies in particular used the option of buybacks to give certain shareholders priority over the threat of bankruptcy.

As a rule, shares are bought back on the stock exchange. Companies can also submit a buyback offer to their shareholders. This normally arises when there are too few trading opportunities or it is required to prevent the market impact on the stock exchange. Usually, shareholders are paid not only the market value, but also a premium.

4 Reasons Why Companies Buy Back Shares

There are many reasons that lead public companies to buy back their own shares. They enable financial and structural measures.

Price increase: A share buyback is usually aimed at increasing the price of the share. The share buyback leads to a reduction in the number of freely available shares, which increases demand and ultimately increases the share price. In some cases, companies simply liquidate the shares they have bought, which leads to an immediate increase in the value and price of the remaining shares.

Protection: As a result of a share buyback, not only are the available shares on the open market reduced, the existing ones also automatically increase in value. So other companies have a harder time buying into the group. Ultimately, share buybacks protect against an impending takeover.

Means of payment: The repurchased shares can also serve as means of payment or as a so-called exchange or transaction currency in order to take over another group. In such cases, payment is made with the company’s own shares.

Bundling: In the course of a share buyback, the number of shareholders is often reduced. In this way, the corporate structure of the company sometimes changes. For example, the decline in the number of shareholders also reduces the number of those who can have a say at the general meeting. At the same time, the amount of the dividend for the remaining shareholders can increase. Because the profits that are distributed to the shareholders are distributed over fewer shares than before and the so-called price-earnings ratio changes in favor of the shareholders.

What does a share buyback mean for shareholders and investors?

GOOD TO KNOW: Some investors pursue special strategies that aim to include public companies in their portfolio that regularly purchase their own securities. In addition, there are also funds that bundle shares in companies that may or may not be bought back.

A share buyback has several effects that can affect both shareholders and potential investors. Shareholders who remain in possession of their shares can partly hope for a price increase. Because the reduction in the number of shares available often increases the stake in the company that remains. And because there are fewer shares in circulation, the dividend usually increases too.

With the announcement of a share buyback, a company also signals in advance that its own shares can be a sensible investment. Because a share buyback means that the company would like to initiate measures that improve its perspective in the long term. Interested investors can share this optimism by also buying stocks . As a result, the share price ultimately rises, ideally over a longer period of time.


Share buybacks can offer shareholders and investors quite positive prospects – but they are not entirely undisputed. In particular, if share buybacks are carried out without a corporate concern, this can lead to prices falling again quickly after a brief increase. And if a price increase occurs only briefly, the effect that is actually intended with a share buyback not only fizzles out quickly, the shares also lose their attractiveness in the long term. Investors are also wondering whether the company can think of any other ways to use the capital (e.g. by investing more in research and development). The possibility of financing share buybacks with the help of debt capital can also maneuver companies into financial difficulties. Because loan interest can only be serviced as long as the company is generating profits. If this does not happen or if the share price does not develop as hoped, the stock corporation threatens to become overindebted.

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